Application of the hottest electronic control tech

2022-08-24
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The application of electronic control technology in automobile engine

1) basic principle and structure of automobile engine

the working process of automobile engine in the world today is basically composed of four strokes, namely intake, compression, expansion and exhaust. The high temperature and high pressure produced by the combustion of the mixture of fuel and air in the cylinder shall be retested with double number of test pieces; If there is still one test piece that fails to meet the expansion of the required gas, the engine will work by outputting torque through the crankshaft with the help of the crank connecting rod mechanism. The engine can be divided into gasoline engine, diesel engine and gas engine according to the fuel used; According to the ignition mode, it can be divided into ignition type and compression ignition type; Gasoline engine can be divided into theoretical equivalent combustion and lean combustion according to the proportion of air and fuel; According to the location of gasoline injection, it can be divided into central injection, inlet injection and in cylinder injection

each part of the engine can be divided into fuel supply system, intake and exhaust system, ignition system, crank and connecting rod transmission mechanism, lubrication system, cooling system and auxiliary system according to its function, such as generator, starter, air conditioning compressor and various pumps

engine working conditions can be divided into cold start, after start, warm-up, idle speed, partial load, full load, acceleration, deceleration and reverse drag sliding. These working conditions are mainly distinguished according to load and speed, combined with engine temperature (i.e. coolant temperature)

2) the importance of electronic control in engine

automotive electronic control begins with engine electronic control. The original intention of electronic control, which was introduced into the engine in 1957 and commercialized in 1967, is to meet the increasingly stringent requirements of emission regulations, while improving the power, fuel economy and comfort of vehicles. It is inconceivable that modern automobile and engine technology have left electronic control. The proportion of the output value of electronic products in the whole automobile increases with the improvement of the automobile level, up to more than 30%

3) the core problem of engine electronic control

the core problem of gasoline engine electronic control is fuel ration and ignition timing. The core problem of diesel engine electronic control is fuel ration and injection timing

2. composition of electronic control system of automobile and engine

like other electronic control systems, electronic control system of automobile and engine is also composed of sensors, electronic control units (ECU) and actuators

1) sensor

(1) at present, gasoline electromechanical C. full automatic fixture: from sample size measurement to clamping control system, the commonly used sensors are:

l intake manifold absolute pressure sensor (providing intake manifold absolute pressure information for calculating load, etc.)

l fuel pressure sensor (providing fuel rail fuel pressure information)

l fuel tank pressure sensor (providing fuel tank pressure information)

l oil pressure sensor (provides oil pressure information)

l coolant temperature sensor provides (provides engine temperature information)

l intake air temperature sensor (provides intake air temperature information for calculating air density, etc.)

l air conditioning evaporator temperature sensor (provides air conditioning evaporator temperature information)

l air conditioning condenser temperature sensor (provides air conditioning condenser temperature information)

l air flow sensor (provides air flow information for calculating load, etc.)

L throttle position sensor (provides load information, load range information, acceleration and deceleration information)

L accelerator pedal position sensor (provides load information, load range information, acceleration and deceleration information, etc.)

L Hall sensor (provides speed information, crankshaft position and phase information)

L inductive speed sensor (provide speed information and crankshaft position information)

l fuel tank level position sensor (provide fuel tank level position information)

l knock sensor (provide vibration information received by the engine body)

l exhaust gas recirculation valve stem displacement sensor (provide exhaust gas recirculation valve opening information)

l oxygen sensor (provide information about whether the excess air coefficient L is greater than 1 or less than 1)

(2) At present, the commonly used sensors of the diesel engine electronic control system are:

L boost pressure sensor (providing boost pressure information)

L fuel pressure sensor (providing common rail fuel pressure information)

L oil pressure sensor (providing oil pressure information)

L coolant temperature sensor (providing engine temperature information)

L fuel temperature sensor (providing fuel temperature information)

L intake air temperature sensor (provide intake air temperature information)

l exhaust temperature sensor (provide temperature information of exhaust port and exhaust pipe)

l air conditioning evaporator temperature sensor (provide temperature information of air conditioning evaporator)

l air conditioning condenser temperature sensor (provide temperature information of air conditioning condenser)

l air flow sensor (provide air flow information)

l throttle position sensor (provide throttle position information for exhaust gas recirculation control)

L angle sensor (provide distribution pump shaft angle information)

L accelerator pedal position sensor (provide load information, load range information, acceleration and deceleration information)

L Hall sensor (provide rotation speed and crankshaft phase information)

L altitude sensor (provide altitude information)

L vehicle speed sensor (provide vehicle speed information)

l inductive speed sensor (provides speed information and crankshaft position information)

l fuel tank liquid level sensor (provides fuel tank liquid level information)

l exhaust gas recirculation valve stem displacement sensor (provides exhaust gas recirculation valve opening information)

l oxygen sensor (provides the specific value of excess air coefficient L)

l differential pressure sensor (provides the differential pressure information of particulate trap)

L NOx sensor (provides NOx concentration information of exhaust after treatment system)

2) electronic control unit

electronic control unit (ECU) receives various information provided by the sensor and processes it, and sends instructions to the actuator according to the processing to control the engine. The electronic control unit is composed of a microcomputer and an analog circuit. With the continuous development of engine technology, the information processing capacity of electronic control units is increasing. Now the chips used have reached 32 bits, the number of transistors can exceed 7million, the number of matching parameters can exceed 6000, and the number of pins can exceed 150. The instrument industry often uses the machine type Jinan new era Gold Testing Instrument Co., Ltd

3) actuator

(1) at present, the commonly used actuators in the electronic control system of gasoline engines are:

L electric fuel pump

L electromagnetic injector

L ignition coil

L various idle speed actuators

L carbon canister control valve

L exhaust gas recirculation control valve

L electric

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